X-ray optics and nano imaging

Senior scientist: Ulrich Vogt

X-ray imaging with x-ray nanobeams [1] is one of the most rapidly developing areas at synchrotron radiation and x-ray free-electron laser facilities around the world. Exciting applications of these nanobeams, i.e., x-ray radiation focused to very small spot sizes in the 10 – 100 nm range, can be found in many fields of science. The unique quality of x-ray nanobeam imaging is the opportunity for direct in-situ and in-operandi experiments exploring very challenging physical environments and giving direct correlation between structure and physical properties.

We design and manufacture diffractive zone plate optics with diffraction-limited resolution in the 10 – 100 nm range [2, 3] for nanobeam imaging in the soft and hard x-ray range. Together with partners from Lund University we built the NanoMAX beamline  and a zone-plate-based x-ray microscope at the Swedish synchrotron source MAX IV. The long term goal is 3D x-ray imaging experiments on the 10 nm resolution level. We also develop novel methods for characterization and improvement of x-ray optics [4, 5, 6].

Zone plate structures manufactured with metal-assisted chemical etching of silicon and different etching conditions (a) - (c). More details can be found in Ref. 3.


  1. See, e.g., G. E. Ice, J. D. Budai, J. W. L. Pang, Science 334, 1234-1239 (2011). link

  2. F. Uhlén, D. Nilsson, J. Rahomäki, L. Belova, C. G. Schroer, F. Seiboth, A. Holmberg, H. M. Hertz and U. Vogt, Microel. Eng. 116, 40-43 (2014). link

  3. R. Akan, K. Parfeniukas, C. Vogt M. S. Toprak, and U. Vogt, RSC Advances 23, 12628-12634 (2018). link

  4. F. Uhlén, J. Rahomäki, D. Nilsson, F. Seiboth, C. Sanz, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and U. Vogt, J. Synch. Rad 21, 1105-1109 (2014). link

  5. F. Seiboth, A. Schropp, M. Scholz, F. Wittwer, C. Rödel, M. Wunsche, T. Ullsperger, S. Nolte, J. Rahomäki, K. Parfeniukas, U. Vogt, U. Wagner, C. Rau, U. Boesenberg, J. Garrevoet, G. Falkenberg, E. C. Galtier, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, and C. G. Schroer, Nature Comm. 8, 14623 (2017). link

  6. U. Vogt, D. Köhler, J. Dickmann, J. Rahomäki, K. Parfeniukas, S. Kubsky, F. Alves, F. Langlois, C. Engblom, and T. Stankevic, Opt. Exp. 25, 12188-12194 (2017). link